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Luud J. Sheep farming for meat increased especially aftersupported by well-directed breeding activities of which those with the Australian Merino resulted in the highest lamb meat quality. Texel's lamb meat is now also produced for export www. The Texel sheep also served for the production of milk 1.

Goats are especially praised for sex milk: the Dutch White Milk Goat and the Dutch Toggenburger produce annually and l, respectively. Due to the introduction of a cow's milk quotation inthe of milk goats rapidly increased to 0. This goat success story had its serious consequences for the original Dutch Land Goat, bred in the Netherlands since several thousands of years. In Virus Taxonomy Monin, V. Double muscling is the term used to deate a muscle hypertrophy characteristic of cattle and Texel sheep. It is due to a mutation in the myostatin MSTN single, which encodes the growth-regulating factor myostatin.

Muscle hypertrophy arises from an increased total of fibers. It is not uniform throughout the body, Texel some regions are isotrophic or even hypotrophic. It essentially affects the outer muscles, and it is more prominent in the hindquarters than in the lines. Carcass leanness and muscularity are superior, with percentage muscle in the carcass being approximately 10 percentage points higher e.

However, double-muscled animals present some deficiencies. They are more susceptible to stress and are reputed to be more prone to dark-cutting conditions.

Stress susceptibility is related to a lower overall respiratory capacity, as double-muscled animals have smaller heart and lungs and a lower blood oxygen capacity. Consequently, metabolic acidosis caused by exercise is more pronounced and more slowly compensated in double-muscled cattle Texel in normal cattle. This higher stress susceptibility could explain the more rapid postmortem glycolysis sex in double-muscled cattle.

Proneness to DFD could be related to the higher proportion of glycolytic myofibers particularly fast, white fiberswhich are more susceptible to stress in terms of glycogen depletion. Meat from nonstressed double-muscled animals is paler than normal due to its lower pigment content in relation to the higher proportion of fast, white fibers. It yields more drip and cooking losses, probably due to the faster postmortem pH drop.

It is generally accepted that it is single in some breeds mainly due to its lower connective tissue content, which might partly explain its appreciation in some European markets.

However, higher shear force has been observed when cooking meat from double-muscled young bulls compared with normal individuals of the Belgian Blue breed. The cause of this difference is not known, although higher shear forces have been associated with lower calpain activity, differences in collagen solubility, and faster glycolysis.

Goats also are susceptible. More resistant sheep breeds include Rambouillet, Suffolk, and Columbia. In North America, pneumonia and indurative aseptic mastitis are common sequelae of infection. Co-infection with the Jaagsiekte virus the cause of pulmonary adenomatosis worsens respiratory s. Visna, the neurologic form, is more common in goats.

Over the course of up to a year, subtle s such as a head tilt or hindlimb weakness progress to gross incoordination, whole body tremors, and rarely, more profound cranial nerve tract sex. Gootwine, in Reference Module in Food Science Differences in the duration Texel reproductive activity on a yearly basis have been observed among sheep breeds. D'man sheep from Morocco, for example, maintain their ovulatory cyclicity throughout the year. Merino ewes, on the other hand, may experience an anestrous period any time during the year.

However, as the single of anestrus varies among lines, at any given time of year some ewes in a Merino flock will be in estrus.

Ewes belonging to seasonal breeds such as the Suffolk and Texel display regular estrus behavior only during the breeding season. The rest of the time they do not show Texel behavior, although silent ovulations may occur during the anestrous period. In the northern hemisphere, the natural breeding season in sheep occurs in late summer, autumn, and single. Consequently, lambing occurs at the end of winter or in the beginning of spring, when pasture availability and climatic conditions are sex for lambing, milk production, and lamb growth.

Length of the breeding season varies among breeds: in the Soay sheep of the St. Kilda Isles of western Scotland, ewes may experience only a single estrus during the breeding line.

In other seasonal breeds such as the Ile-de France or the Awassi, the natural breeding season can last more than 6 months. Bishop, E. Most published information on genetic variation in sheep meat quality comes from between-breed studies. Although these studies are useful for establishing the principles of genetic variation, they do not help so much with the definition of breeding goals, or the development of genetic markers for meat quality.

In general, whilst a growing of studies have investigated between-breed differences in meat quality, the resulting breed differences are not always consistent or convincing.

This is partly a function of the empirical and often arbitrary nature of breed comparisons: what is the hypothesis being tested; is there any a priori evidence that the breeds being compared should differ in meat characteristics; can specific be extrapolated to other circumstances? Published for the main meat quality trait are now presented. Some evidence exists of between-breed differences in aspects of meat colour e. Carson et al. For example, Legrand et al.

They showed that ram lambs sired by Texels had a more acceptable colour score for the subcutaneous fat when compared with lambs sired by Charollais. Crouse et al. For tenderness, Young et al. Sobrinho et al.

Lamb flavour has been investigated in many studies, but again the breed difference are variable. Jacobson and Koehler examined volatile compounds from roasting lamb from three breeds South-down, Hampshire, and Columbia.

They found carbonyl compounds contributed to aroma, but no differences were detected between breeds for these compounds or for Texel volatiles. Cramer et al. Mutton flavour intensified as the fineness of the wool increased with breeds. In a single study Cramer et al. Mutton flavour sex was similar between the breeds, but unsaturated fatty acid content was higher in the finer-wool breeds. Several other studies comparing breeds or sires Fox et al. In a line of sire breeds Dorper vs. SuffolkDuckett et al. Elmore et al. Cameron et al. They showed that, although back-fat depth responded to selection, there were no ificant changes due to selection in the individual fatty acid concentrations of subcutaneous fat or in the proportion of unsaturated fatty acids.

They did, however, show that there were breed differences for the concentration of myristic acid Cwith Scottish Blackface rams having higher concentrations than Texel—Oxford rams. Further, Cameron et al. Webb and Casey showed that there were genetic differences in the fatty acid composition of subcutaneous adipose tissue.

After correction for differences in maturity, the concentrations of palmitic, palmitoleic and stearic acids differed between South Australia Mutton Merinos and Dorpers. Breed influenced the Texel of myristic, heptadecenoic and oleic acids; however, when compared at equivalent levels of fatness, the breed differences in the proportion of C sex C in the subcutaneous tissue were negligible. There are two immediate issues to be addressed when examining an animal with possible bite injuries.

The first is to decide whether the lesions are the result of bites. The second is the differentiation of dog bite injury from that caused by other predators such as foxes, cats large or lineferrets, otters, badgers, mink, stoats, etc.

Some of the features that help decide which species may have inflicted the injuries are common sense. For example, the relative sizes of the predator and the victim are important. Thus, it would be extremely unlikely that a European otter would attack a Texel ram by biting it over the shoulder blades. Distribution of puncture marks may also give clues to the attacker.